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Eur J Cell Biol. 2006 Sep;85(9-10):1011-22. Epub 2006 Jun 9.

The annexins of Dictyostelium.

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Institute for Biochemistry I, Medical Faculty, and Center for Molecular Medicine Cologne, University of Cologne, Joseph-Stelzmann-Str. 52, D-50931 Köln, Germany.


Annexins are a highly conserved ubiquitous family of Ca2+- and phospholipid-binding proteins present in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Analysis of the Dictyostelium genome revealed the presence of two annexin genes, the annexin C1 gene (nxnA) giving rise to two isoforms of 47 and 51 kDa (previously synexin), and the annexin C2 gene (nxnB) coding for a 56-kDa protein with 33% sequence identity to annexin C1. Annexin C2 is expressed at very low and constant levels throughout development. Quantification by real-time PCR indicated that it is present in about 35-fold lower amounts compared to annexin C1. We have used a GFP-tagged annexin C2 to study its cellular distribution and dynamics. In cell fractionation studies, annexin C2 cofractionates with annexin C1 and is enriched in the 100,000 g pellet. Like annexin C1, GFP-AnxC2 stains the plasma membrane. In addition it is present in the perinuclear region and overlaps to some degree with the Golgi apparatus, whereas annexin C1 is present on intracellular membranes resembling endosomal membranes and in the nucleus. Annexin C2 is not observed in the nucleus. An annexin C1 mutant (SYN-) which shows a defect during multicellular development can be rescued by full-length annexin C1, whereas overexpression of GFP-AnxC2 did not rescue the developmental defect The data support the concept that annexins, although having a highly conserved structure, participate in different functions in a cell.

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