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Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2005 Apr;48(2):278-9.

Study of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic contaminaiton of currency notes in circulation.

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Department of Microbiology, JJM Medical College, Davangere.


A total of 100 currency notes of various denominations in circulation were randomly studied for bacterial, fungal and protozoal contamination. All except four notes yielded one or more bacteria. Bacterial culture yielded single isolate in 33 notes, two in 44 notes, three in 12 notes and four in 7 notes. The predominant bacterial isolate was Bacillus sps followed by Coagulase negative Staphylococci and Micrococcus sps. Other bacteria that are either potential or confirmed pathogens included K. pneumoniae, E. coli, S. aureus, Pseudomonas sps and S. typhi. Only two notes were positive for Acid fast bacilli. 28 samples did not yield any fungal growth. Overall 118 fungal isolates were isolated, of which 34 could not be identified. All the fungi isolated were saprophytes. Saline and Iodine wet mount did not reveal any parasitic forms. We recommend that currency notes must be handled with caution.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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