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Neuron Glia Biol. 2004 Nov;1(4):307-16.

Astrocyte activation of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors modulates hippocampal inhibitory synaptic transmission.

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Center for Aging and Developmental Biology University of Rochester, NY, USA.


In the CNS, fine processes of astrocytes often wrap around dendrites, axons and synapses, which provides an interface where neurons and astrocytes might interact. We have reported previously that selective Ca(2+) elevation in astrocytes, by photolysis of caged Ca(2+) by o-nitrophenyl-EGTA (NP-EGTA), causes a kainite receptor-dependent increase in the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory post-synaptic potentials (sIPSCs) in neighboring interneurons in hippocampal slices. However, tetrodotoxin (TTX), which blocks action potentials, reduces the frequency of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) in interneurons during Ca(2+) uncaging by an unknown presynaptic mechanism. In this study we investigate the mechanism underlying the presynaptic inhibition. We show that Ca(2+) uncaging in astrocytes is accompanied by a decrease in the amplitude of evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs) in neighboring interneurons. The decreases in eIPSC amplitude and mIPSC frequency are prevented by CPPG, a group II/III metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist, but not by the AMPA/kainate and NMDA receptor antagonists CNQX/CPP. Application of either the group II mGluR agonist DCG IV or the group III mGluR agonist L-AP4 decreased the amplitude of eIPSCs by a presynaptic mechanism, and both effects are blocked by CPPG. Thus, activation of mGluRs mediates the effects of Ca(2+) uncaging on mIPSCs and eIPSCs. Our results indicate that Ca(2+)-dependent release of glutamate from astrocytes can activate distinct classes of glutamate receptors and differentially modulate inhibitory synaptic transmission in hippocampal interneurons.

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