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Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2006 Oct;32(4):349-55. Epub 2006 Jun 6.

A prospective study of medically treated acute type B aortic dissection.

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1
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery and Anesthesiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. anders.winnerkvist@ki.se

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To study prospectively aneurysm formation, need of surgery, incidence of rupture and mortality in patients with conservatively treated acute type B aortic dissection.

METHODS:

All patients referred to us with acute type B dissection between January 1990 and December 2001 were candidates for this prospective treatment and follow-up study. Patients deemed not to be in need of acute surgical repair were included after aggressive antihypertensive treatment. The follow-up protocol included close blood pressure control, clinic visits with physical examination, chest x-ray and spiral CT or MRI at 3 and 6 months and annually thereafter.

RESULTS:

Sixty-six patients were followed for a mean of 79 months (range 22-179). The actuarial survival rate was 82% at 5 years and 69% at 10 years. Eighty-five percent remained free from dissection-related death at 5 years and 82% at 10 years. Ten patients (15%) developed aneurysm (>6 cm) of the dissected aorta. Three of these 10 patients died from aortic rupture and 2 underwent elective surgical repair. Of the 56 patients without aneurysm, one died from rupture and one died suddenly for causes unknown. One patient was treated with endovascular stent-graft. Five patients sustained a new type A aortic dissection which in all but one were fatal. In 26 patients the initial dissection was categorized as intramural hematoma. Twelve of these patients had, in addition to the hematoma, areas with localized dissection/ulcer-like projection. The latter was found to be a predictor of aortic event (dissection-related death, rupture, new type A aortic dissection, aneurysm formation) during follow-up, as was an initial diameter of >4.0 cm at first CT-scan during the acute event.

CONCLUSIONS:

Conservatively treated acute type B dissection has a low incidence of aneurysm formation and rupture during the chronic phase. These results must be matched or improved upon before endovascular stent-grafting or early aortic surgical repair can be regarded as the primary treatment of choice.

PMID:
16753315
DOI:
10.1016/j.ejvs.2006.04.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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