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Environ Res. 2007 Jan;103(1):9-20. Epub 2006 Jun 5.

An observational study of the potential exposures of preschool children to pentachlorophenol, bisphenol-A, and nonylphenol at home and daycare.

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Battelle Memorial Institute, 100 Capitola Drive, Suite 301, Durham, NC 27713-4411, USA.


The Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants (CTEPP) study investigated the potential exposures of 257 preschool children, ages 1 1/2-5 yr, and their primary adult caregivers to more than 50 anthropogenic chemicals. Field sampling took place in selected counties in North Carolina (NC) and Ohio (OH) in 2000-2001. Over a 48-h period in each child's daycare center and/or home, food, beverages, indoor air, outdoor air, house dust, soil, participants' hand surfaces and urine were sampled. Additional samples-transferable residues, food preparation surface wipes, and hard floor surface wipes-were collected in the approximately 13% of the homes that had pesticide applications within the 7 days prior to field sampling. Three phenols were among the measured chemicals: pentachlorophenol (PCP), bisphenol-A [2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane], and nonylphenol (4-n-nonylphenol). Nonylphenol (NP) was detected in less than 11% of the samples in any medium. Among samples that were collected at all participants' homes and daycare centers, PCP was detected in >50% of indoor air, outdoor air, house dust, and urine samples; bisphenol-A (BPA) was detected in >50% of indoor air, hand wipe, solid food, and liquid food samples. The concentrations of the phenols in the sampled media were measured, and the children's potential exposures and potential absorbed doses resulting from intake through the inhalation, dietary ingestion, and indirect ingestion routes of exposure were estimated. The children's potential exposures to PCP were predominantly through inhalation: 78% in NC and 90% in OH. In contrast, their potential exposures to BPA were predominantly through dietary ingestion: 99%, for children in both states. The children's estimated exposures to PCP, calculated from the amounts excreted in their urine, exceeded their estimated maximum potential intake, calculated from the multimedia PCP concentrations, by a factor greater than 10. This inconsistency for PCP highlights the need for further research on the environmental pathways and routes of PCP exposure, investigation of possible exposures to other compounds that could be metabolized to PCP, and on the human absorption, metabolism, and excretion of this phenol over time periods longer than 48 h.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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