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J Nephrol. 2006 Mar-Apr;19(2):205-10.

Characterization of kidney lesions in Indian adults: towards a renal biopsy registry.

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Department of Nephrology, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India.



In the absence of a renal biopsy registry, there is a paucity of data on the renal disease pattern seen in India. This study reviews the changing pattern of renal disease seen at a single center over the last 30 yrs.


Histopathological data of 5415 adequate native kidney biopsies performed on consecutive adult Indian patients presenting to our hospital from 1986-2002 were analyzed. This pathological demography classified according to the modified World Health Organization (WHO) classification was compared to the earlier published cohort collected from 1971-1985 (n=2827) to ascertain the changing trends.


The indications for renal biopsy were comparable between the cohorts and included nephrotic syndrome (65%), nephritic syndrome (13%) and chronic renal failure (10.2%). Primary glomerular disease accounted for 71% of all biopsies. Non-immunoglobulin A (IgA) mesangio proliferative glomerulonephritis as a group was the predominant pathology (20.2%), followed by idiopathic focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) (17%), minimal change disease (MCD) (11.6%), membranous glomerulopathy (MN) (9.8%), IgA nephropathy (8.6%) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN) (3.7%). Of the patients with secondary kidney diseases, lupus nephritis (6.5%), diabetic nephropathy (2.5%), interstitial nephropathy (2.5%) and benign nephrosclerosis (2.2%) were notable. During the 31 yrs of the study period, there was a steady increase in FSGS prevalence (p<0.001), MN (p<0.0001), and post infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN) (p<0.001). A reduction in the frequency of MPGN (p<0.001) and MCD (p<0.001) was observed.


This is the largest series of renal biopsy data from India; and therefore, could reflect the demographic picture of renal diseases in this country. It discusses evolving patterns over 30 yrs and highlights differences with the developed world. This report represents the basis for the future of a renal biopsy registry in India.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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