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J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 18;281(33):23712-24. Epub 2006 May 29.

Phosphorylation of amphiphysin I by minibrain kinase/dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase, a kinase implicated in Down syndrome.

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Department of Molecular Biology, New York State Institute for Basic Research in Developmental Disabilities, Staten Island, New York 10314, USA.


Minibrain kinase/dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase (Mnb/Dyrk1A) is a proline-directed serine/threonine kinase encoded in the Down syndrome critical region of human chromosome 21. This kinase has been shown to phosphorylate dynamin 1 and synaptojanin 1. Here we report that amphiphysin I (Amph I) is also a Mnb/Dyrk1A substrate. This kinase phosphorylated native Amph I in rodent brains and recombinant human Amph I expressed in Escherichia coli. Serine 293 (Ser-293) was identified as the major site, whereas serine 295 and threonine 310 were found as minor kinase sites. In cultured cells, recombinant Amph I was phosphorylated at Ser-293 by endogenous kinase(s). Because mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) has been suggested to phosphorylate Amph I at Ser-293, our efforts addressed whether Ser-293 is phosphorylated in vivo by MAPK/ERK or by Mnb/Dyrk1A. Overnight serum-withdrawal inactivated MAPK/ERK; nonetheless, Ser-293 was phosphorylated in Chinese hamster ovary and SY5Y cells. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a potent Mnb/Dyrk1A inhibitor in vitro, apparently reduced the phosphorylation at Ser-293, whereas PD98059, a potent MAPK/ERK inhibitor, did not. High frequency stimulation of mouse hippocampal slices reduced the phosphorylation at Ser-293, albeit in the midst of MAPK/ERK activation. The endophilin binding in vitro was inhibited by phosphorylating Amph I with Mnb/Dyrk1A. However, phosphorylation at Ser-293 did not appear to alter cellular distribution patterns of the protein. Our results suggest that Mnb/Dyrk1A, not MAPK/ERK, is responsible for in vivo phosphorylation of Amph I at Ser-293 and that phosphorylation changes the recruitment of endophilin at the endocytic sites.

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