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J Biol Chem. 2006 Jul 28;281(30):20865-72. Epub 2006 May 25.

Mechanism of stimulation of human DNA ligase I by the Rad9-rad1-Hus1 checkpoint complex.

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Department of Biochemistry & Biophysics, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry, Rochester, New York 14642.


Accumulating evidence suggests that the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 (9-1-1) checkpoint complex, known to be a sensor of DNA damage, is also a component of DNA repair systems. Recent results show that 9-1-1 interacts with several base excision repair proteins. It binds the DNA glycosylase MutY homolog, and stimulates DNA polymerase beta, flap endonuclease 1, and DNA ligase I. 9-1-1 resembles proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which stimulates some of these same repair enzymes, and is loaded onto DNA in a similar manner. The complex of 9-1-1 with DNA ligase I can be immunoprecipitated from human cells. Moreover, UV irradiation stimulates 9-1-1.ligase I complex formation, suggesting a role for 9-1-1 in DNA repair. Examining the nature of 9-1-1 interaction with DNA ligase I, we show that there is a similar degree of stimulation on ligation substrates with different structures, and that there is specificity for DNA ligase I. 9-1-1 improves the binding of DNA ligase I to nicked double strand DNA. Furthermore, although high concentrations of casein kinase II strongly inhibits DNA ligase I activity, it does not affect the ability of 9-1-1 to stimulate. This suggests that 9-1-1 is also an activator of DNA ligase I during DNA damage. Unlike PCNA, 9-1-1 stimulates DNA ligase I activity to the same extent on both linear and circular substrates, indicating that encirclement is not a requirement for stimulation. These data are consistent with a direct role for 9-1-1 in DNA repair, but possibly employing a different mechanism than PCNA.

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