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Ann Thorac Surg. 2006 Jun;81(6):2250-7; discussion 2258.

Natural history of pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and right-ventricle-dependent coronary circulation managed by the single-ventricle approach.

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1
Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Children's Hospital Boston, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Long-term outcome of patients with pulmonary valvar atresia and intact ventricular septum with right-ventricle-dependent coronary circulation (PA/IVS-RVDCC) managed by staged palliation directed toward Fontan circulation is unknown, but should serve as a basis for comparison with management protocols that include initial systemic-to-pulmonary artery shunting followed by listing for cardiac transplantation.

METHODS:

Retrospective review of patients admitted to our institution with the diagnosis of PA/IVS-RVDCC from 1989 to 2004. All angiographic imaging studies, operative reports, and follow-up information were reviewed. Right-ventricle-dependent coronary circulation was defined as situations in which ventriculocoronary fistulae with proximal coronary stenosis or atresia were present, putting significant left ventricle myocardium at risk for ischemia with right ventricle decompression.

RESULTS:

Thirty-two patients were identified with PA/IVS-RVDCC. All underwent initial palliation with modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (BTS). Median tricuspid valve z-score was -3.62 (-2.42 to -5.15), and all had moderate (n = 13) or severe (n = 19) right ventricular hypoplasia. Median follow-up was 5.1 years (9 months to 14.8 years). Overall mortality was 18.8% (6 of 32), with all deaths occurring within 3 months of BTS. Aortocoronary atresia was associated with 100% mortality (3 of 3). Of the survivors (n = 26), 19 have undergone Fontan operation whereas 7, having undergone bidirectional Glenn shunt, currently await Fontan. Actuarial survival by the Kaplan-Meier method for all patients was 81.3% at 5, 10, and 15 years, whereas mean survival was 12.1 years (95% confidence interval: 10.04 to 14.05). No late mortality occurred among those surviving beyond 3 months of age.

CONCLUSIONS:

In patients with PA/IVS-RVDCC, early mortality appears related to coronary ischemia at the time of BTS. Single-ventricle palliation yields excellent long-term survival and should be the preferred management strategy for these patients. Those with aortocoronary atresia have a particularly poor prognosis and should undergo cardiac transplantation.

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