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Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Jul 1;540(1-3):60-6. Epub 2006 Apr 1.

Attenuation of morphine tolerance and dependence by aminoguanidine in mice.

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Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.


The effect of aminoguanidine, an inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, on morphine-induced tolerance and dependence in mice was investigated in this study. Acute administration of aminoguanidine (20 mg/kg, p.o.) did not affect the antinociceptive effect of morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) as measured by the hot plate test. Repeated administration of aminoguanidine along with morphine attenuated the development of tolerance to the antinociceptive effect of morphine. Also, the development of morphine dependence as assessed by naloxone-precipitated withdrawal manifestations was reduced by co-administration of aminoguanidine. The effect of aminoguanidine on naloxone-precipitated withdrawal was enhanced by concurrent administration of the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, dizocilpine (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) or the non-specific nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, l-N(G)-nitroarginine methyl ester (l-NAME; 5 mg/kg, i.p.) and antagonized by concurrent administration of the nitric oxide (NO) precursor, l-arginine (50 mg/kg, p.o.). Concomitantly, the progressive increase in NO production, but not in brain glutamate level, induced by morphine was inhibited by repeated administration of aminoguanidine along with morphine. Similarly, co-administration of aminoguanidine inhibited naloxone-induced NO overproduction, but it did not inhibit naloxone-induced elevation of brain glutamate level in morphine-dependent mice. The effect of aminoguanidine on naloxone-induced NO overproduction was potentiated by concurrent administration of dizocilpine or l-NAME and antagonized by concurrent administration of l-arginine. These results provide evidence that blockade of NO overproduction, the consequence of NMDA receptor activation, by aminoguanidine, via inhibition of iNOS, can attenuate the development of morphine tolerance and dependence.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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