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Neurosurgery. 2006 Jun;58(6):1009-26; discussion 1009-26.

Toward the emergence of nanoneurosurgery: part III--nanomedicine: targeted nanotherapy, nanosurgery, and progress toward the realization of nanoneurosurgery.

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Department of Neurological Surgery, Keck School of Medicine, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.


The notion of nanotechnology has evolved since its inception as a fantastic conceptual idea to its current position as a mainstream research initiative with broad applications among all divisions of science. In the first part of this series, we reviewed the structures and principles that comprise the main body of knowledge of nanoscience and nanotechnology. In the second part, we discussed applications of nanotechnology to the emerging field of nanomedicine, with specific attention on medical diagnostics and imaging. This article further explores the applications of nanotechnology to nanomedicine. Specific attention is given to developments in therapeutic modalities, including advanced drug delivery systems and targeted nanotherapy, which will form the basis for the treatment arm of mature nanomedicine. A variety of modalities are discussed, including polymeric nanoparticles, micelles, liposomes, dendrimers, fullerenes, hydrogels, nanoshells, and smart surfaces. Applications of nanotechnology to nanosurgery and nanoneurosurgery are presented. Femtosecond laser systems, nanoneedles, and nanotweezers are presented as technologies that are operational at the nanoscale level and have the potential to revolutionize the practice of neurosurgery in a profound and momentous way.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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