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J Phys Chem A. 2006 Jun 1;110(21):6860-73.

Effects of externally-through-internally-mixed soot inclusions within clouds and precipitation on global climate.

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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4020, USA.


This paper examines the incremental global climate response of black carbon (BC), the main component of soot, due to absorption and scattering by BC inclusions within cloud and precipitation particles. Modeled soot is emitted as an externally mixed aerosol particle. It evolves to an internal mixture through condensation, hydration, dissolution, dissociation, crystallization, aqueous chemistry, coagulation, and cloud processing. Size-resolved cloud liquid and ice particles grow by condensation onto size-resolved soot and other particles. Cloud particles grow to precipitation by coagulation and the Bergeron process. Cloud and precipitation particles also undergo freezing, melting, evaporation, sublimation, and coagulation with interstitial aerosol particles. Soot, which is tracked in cloud and precipitation particles of all sizes, is removed by rainout, washout, sedimentation, and dry deposition. Two methods of treating the optics of BC in size-resolved cloud liquid, ice and graupel are compared: the core-shell approximation (CSA) and the iterative dynamic effective medium approximation (DEMA). The 10-year global near-surface incremental temperature response due to fossil fuel (ff), biofuel (bf), and biomass burning (bb) BC within clouds with the DEMA was slightly stronger than that with the CSA, but both enhancements were <+0.05 K. The ff+bf portion may be approximately 60% of the total, suggesting that BC inclusions within clouds may enhance the near-surface temperature response of ff+bf soot due to all processes (estimated as approximately 0.27 K), by <10%, strengthening the possible climate impact of BC. BC cloud absorption was also found to increase water vapor, decrease precipitation, and decrease cloud fraction. The increase in water vapor at the expense of precipitation contributed to warming in addition to that of the cloud BC absorption itself. Aerosol-hydrometeor coagulation followed by hydrometeor evaporation may have caused almost twice the BC internal mixing as aerosol-aerosol coagulation.

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