Send to

Choose Destination
NeuroRehabilitation. 2006;21(1):71-9.

Tutorial on maximum inspiratory and expiratory mouth pressures in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) and the preliminary results of an expiratory muscle strength training program.

Author information

University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.


Respiratory symptoms are recognized as sequelae of motor dysfunction in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) and these symptoms have the potential to cause problems with swallow, cough, voice and speech. Specifically, maneuvers that require rapid activation and coordination of upper airway and chest wall musculature become progressively impaired as motor dysfunction progresses during the natural course of the disease. This study reports on the maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures produced by 28 participants (average age 64) diagnosed with moderate to severe IPD (average stage 2.5 with a range of 2.0-3.0). All measures were collected during the "medication on" state. Outcomes of a specific respiratory muscle strength training technique for improving maximum expiratory pressure are reported for three of the patients in this study. Techniques that focus on strengthening the respiratory muscles in patients with IPD (other than with low load breathing exercises), have not been previously reported. The results of this pilot study demonstrate that respiratory muscle weakness may be an important factor in the respiratory complications in IPD and that respiratory muscle strength training has the potential to improve expiratory muscle strength for this population. This improvement has the potential to positively impact high forced respiratory activities, such as forced breathing maneuvers, swallow, cough and speech functions that require greater magnitude and duration of expiration.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for IOS Press
Loading ...
Support Center