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World J Gastroenterol. 2006 May 7;12(17):2688-93.

Cholecystokinin hyperresponsiveness in functional dyspepsia.

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Ipoh Gastro Centre, 31, Lebuhraya Taman Ipoh, Ipoh Garden South, 31400 Ipoh, Perak, Malaysia.


Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common disorder of yet uncertain etiology. Dyspeptic symptoms are usually meal related and suggest an association to gastrointestinal (GI) sensorimotor dysfunction. Cholecystokinin (CCK) is an established brain-gut peptide that plays an important regulatory role in gastrointestinal function. It inhibits gastric motility and emptying via a capsaicin sensitive vagal pathway. The effects on emptying are via its action on the proximal stomach and pylorus. CCK is also involved in the regulation of food intake. It is released in the gut in response to a meal and acts via vagal afferents to induce satiety. Furthermore CCK has also been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of panic disorder, anxiety and pain. Other neurotransmitters such as serotonin and noradrenaline may be implicated with CCK in the coordination of GI activity. In addition, intravenous administration of CCK has been observed to reproduce the symptoms in FD and this effect can be blocked both by atropine and loxiglumide (CCK-A antagonist). It is possible that an altered response to CCK may be responsible for the commonly observed gastric sensorimotor dysfunction, which may then be associated with the genesis of dyspeptic symptoms.

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