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J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2006 May;36(5):320-5.

Effect of transducer velocity on intramuscular temperature during a 1-MHz ultrasound treatment.

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Marketing Representative, OrthoIndy, Indianapolis, IN 47809, USA.



A 3 x 2 repeated-measures design was used. The independent variables were transducer velocity (2-3 cm/s, 4-5 cm/s, and 7-8 cm/s) and time (pretreatment and posttreatment).


To determine if transducer velocity of a 1-MHz ultrasound treatment affects intramuscular tissue temperature.


Most authors advocate ultrasound transducer velocities of 2 to 4 cm/s within an area of 2 to 3 times the effective radiating area or 2 times the size of the transducer head. However, a much faster rate of application (approximately 7-8 cm/s) is often observed in clinical settings.


Eleven healthy screened volunteers (9 males, 2 females; mean +/- SD age, 22.6 +/- 1.7 years; mean +/- SD height, 175.7 +/- 13.7 cm; mean +/- SD body mass, 82.5 +/- 19.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a treatment order with all conditions administered during a single testing session. Each transducer velocity condition was administered for 10 minutes, using 1-MHz ultrasound with a 100% continuous duty cycle at an intensity of 1.5 W/cm2 over an area twice the size of the transducer head. After the first treatment, the 2 remaining subsequent velocity conditions were administered after the intramuscular temperature returned to within +/- 0.3 degrees C of the initial pretreatment temperature for 5 minutes. The dependent variable was left triceps surae muscle temperature measured at 3 cm below one half the measured skinfold thickness.


Temperature increase across the 3 velocities was within 0.4 degrees C (F2.20 = 0.07, P = .93). Posttreatment values (mean +/- SD) ranged from 42.7 degrees C +/- 2.3 degrees C for the slowest velocity to 43.1 degrees C +/- 1.4 degrees C for the fastest velocity. Temperature increase was significant for time (F1.01 = 155.68, P<.00001), increasing from 37.8 degrees C +/- 0.8 degrees C pretreatment to 42.9 degrees C +/- 1.9 degrees C after treatment.


Very similar intramuscular temperature increases can be observed among ultrasound treatments (10-minute duration, 1-MHz frequency, 100% continuous duty cycle, 1.5 W/cm2 intensity, within an area twice the size of the transducer head), with transducer velocities of 2 to 3, 4 to 5, and 7 to 8 cm/s.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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