Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Child Maltreat. 2001 May;6(2):118-29.

Ethnicity, income, and parenting contexts of physical punishment in a national sample of families with young children.

Author information

Johns Hopkins University, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.


Nearly half of U.S. parents use physical punishment for child discipline. Although some studies relate physical punishment and later dysfunction, others suggest that its effects depend on the context in which it is used. The authors analyzed data from the Commonwealth Fund Survey of Parents With Young Children, a national sample of 2,017 parents with children younger than 3. Parents reported their use of spanking, five other disciplinary practices, and four nurturing interactions. The authors used cluster analysis to define four groups of parents with distinct patterns of discipline and nurturing. Two groups with above-average use of spanking shared a high prevalence of parent depressive symptoms and a low level of nurturing but had markedly different demographic profiles and use of nonphysical punishment. Parents who used average levels of spanking made frequent use of nonphysical disciplinary strategies and had high levels of nurturing interactions. Parents who reported below-average spanking had relatively low levels of both disciplinary and nurturing interactions.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon
    Loading ...
    Support Center