Send to

Choose Destination
Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Jun;26(11):4316-26.

Multisite protein kinase A and glycogen synthase kinase 3beta phosphorylation leads to Gli3 ubiquitination by SCFbetaTrCP.

Author information

Département Génétique et Développement, Institut Cochin, 24 rue du Faubourg St-Jacques, 75014 Paris, France.


Gli3 is a zinc finger transcription factor proteolytically processed into a truncated repressor lacking C-terminal activation domains. Gli3 processing is stimulated by protein kinase A (PKA) and inhibited by Hedgehog signaling, a major signaling pathway in vertebrate development and disease. We show here that multisite glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) phosphorylation and ubiquitination by SCFbetaTrCP are required for Gli3 processing. We identified multiple betaTrCP-binding sites related to the DSGX2-4S motif in Gli3, which are intertwined with PKA and GSK3beta sites, and SCFbetaTrCP target lysines that are essential for processing. Our results support a simple model whereby PKA triggers a cascade of Gli3 phosphorylation by GSK3beta and CK1 that leads to direct betaTrCP binding and ubiquitination by SCFbetaTrCP. Binding of betaTrCP to Gli3 N- and C-terminal domains lacking DSGX2-4S-related motifs was also observed, which could reflect indirect interaction via other components of Hedgehog signaling, such as the tumor suppressor Sufu. Gli3 therefore joins a small set of transcription factors whose processing is regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Our study sheds light on the role of PKA phosphorylation in Gli3 processing and will help to analyze how dose-dependent tuning of Gli3 processing is achieved by Hedgehog signaling.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center