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Biochemistry. 2006 May 23;45(20):6392-406.

Effects of biological oxidants on the catalytic activity and structure of group VIA phospholipase A2.

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Medicine Department Mass Spectrometry Facility, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Lipid Research, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63110, USA.


Group VIA phospholipase A(2) (iPLA(2)beta) is expressed in phagocytes, vascular cells, pancreatic islet beta-cells, neurons, and other cells and plays roles in transcriptional regulation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, secretion, and other events. A bromoenol lactone (BEL) suicide substrate used to study iPLA(2)beta functions inactivates iPLA(2)beta by alkylating Cys thiols. Because thiol redox reactions are important in signaling and some cells that express iPLA(2)beta produce biological oxidants, iPLA(2)beta might be subject to redox regulation. We report that biological concentrations of H(2)O(2), NO, and HOCl inactivate iPLA(2)beta, and this can be partially reversed by dithiothreitol (DTT). Oxidant-treated iPLA(2)beta modifications were studied by LC-MS/MS analyses of tryptic digests and included DTT-reversible events, e.g., formation of disulfide bonds and sulfenic acids, and others not so reversed, e.g., formation of sulfonic acids, Trp oxides, and Met sulfoxides. W(460) oxidation could cause irreversible inactivation because it is near the lipase consensus sequence ((463)GTSTG(467)), and site-directed mutagenesis of W(460) yields active mutant enzymes that exhibit no DTT-irreversible oxidative inactivation. Cys651-sulfenic acid formation could be one DTT-reversible inactivation event because Cys651 modification correlates closely with activity loss and its mutagenesis reduces sensitivity to inhibition. Intermolecular disulfide bond formation might also cause reversible inactivation because oxidant-treated iPLA(2)beta contains DTT-reducible oligomers, and oligomerization occurs with time- and temperature-dependent iPLA(2)beta inactivation that is attenuated by DTT or ATP. Subjecting insulinoma cells to oxidative stress induces iPLA(2)beta oligomerization, loss of activity, and subcellular redistribution and reduces the rate of release of arachidonate from phospholipids. These findings raise the possibility that redox reactions affect iPLA(2)beta functions.

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