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Cancer. 2006 Jun 15;106(12):2603-9.

Radical prostatectomy for clinical T4 prostate cancer.

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Radiation Oncology Department, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.



Occasionally, patients with clinical T4 (cT4) prostate cancer undergo surgery. Published data on outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP) in patients with such advanced stage disease and on the impact of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) and hormone therapy (HT) are nonexistent.


Data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data base were reviewed for the 7-year period from 1995 to 2001. Specifically, data were analyzed for 1093 patients with cT4, lymph node-negative or lymph node-positive, M0 prostate cancer without distant lymph node involvement or a history of other cancer. Using follow-up data through 2002, postdiagnosis survival was examined in 5 treatment groups: radical prostatectomy (RP) either alone or in combination with other therapy, radiation therapy (RT) alone, hormone therapy (HT) alone, RT plus HT, and no treatment (NT). All results were expressed as 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year observed survival and corresponding relative survival. Mortality across treatment categories was compared by using a Cox proportionate hazards model controlling for age, year of diagnosis, race, tumor grade, regional lymph node involvement, clinical tumor extension, and SEER registry.


Observed and relative survival rates were lowest among patients who received NT and highest among patients who underwent RP. Adding adjuvant RT or HT to RP conferred no survival benefit. Multivariate survival analyses revealed a significant increase in mortality among HT-only patients and among patients who received NT compared with patients who underwent RP. The differences in survival among treatment types were most pronounced in a relatively small group of patients who had positive regional lymph node extension. In all other patients, the results suggested a modest (but not significant) improvement in survival after RT plus HT.


SEER data revealed that patients who underwent RP for cT4 prostate cancer had increased survival compared with patients who received RT alone or HT alone and had a survival comparable to that of patients who received RT plus HT. The benefit of RP appears to be limited to a relatively small subset of patients who have regional lymph node extension.

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