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Pediatr Res. 2006 Jul;60(1):14-21. Epub 2006 May 11.

Imaging tools for the developmental biologist: ultrasound biomicroscopy of mouse embryonic development.

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Pediatric Cardiology Program, New York University School of Medicine, New York 10016, USA.


Progress has been rapid in the elucidation of genes responsible for cardiac development. Strategies to ascertain phenotypes, however, have lagged behind advances in genomics, particularly in the in vivo mouse embryo, considered a model organism for mammalian development, and for human development and disease. Over the past several years, our laboratory and others have pioneered a variety of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM)-Doppler approaches to study in vivo development in both normal and mutant mouse embryos. This state-of-the-art review will discuss the development and potential of ultrasound biomicroscopy as a tool for the in vivo imaging and phenotyping of both cardiac and non-cardiac organ systems in the early developing mouse. Broad, long-term research objectives are to define living structure-function relationships during critical periods of mammalian morphogenesis.

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