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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Jun 30;345(2):646-51. Epub 2006 May 3.

Validation of housekeeping genes as internal control for studying gene expression in rice by quantitative real-time PCR.

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Interdisciplinary Centre for Plant Genomics and Department of Plant Molecular Biology, University of Delhi South Campus, New Delhi 110 021, India.


For accurate and reliable gene expression results, normalization of real-time PCR data is required against a control gene, which displays highly uniform expression in living organisms during various phases of development and under different environmental conditions. We assessed the gene expression of 10 frequently used housekeeping genes, including 18S rRNA, 25S rRNA, UBC, UBQ5, UBQ10, ACT11, GAPDH, eEF-1alpha, eIF-4a, and beta-TUB, in a diverse set of 25 rice samples. Their expression varied considerably in different tissue samples analyzed. The expression of UBQ5 and eEF-1alpha was most stable across all the tissue samples examined. However, 18S and 25S rRNA exhibited most stable expression in plants grown under various environmental conditions. Also, a set of two genes was found to be better as control for normalization of the data. The expression of these genes (with more uniform expression) can be used for normalization of real-time PCR results for gene expression studies in a wide variety of samples in rice.

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