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Am J Manag Care. 2006 May;12(5):268-74.

Monitoring of drugs with a narrow therapeutic range in ambulatory care.

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Clinical Research Unit, Kaiser Permanente of Colorado, PO Box 378066, Denver, CO 80237-8066, USA.



To describe the proportion of patients receiving drugs with a narrow therapeutic range who lacked serum drug concentration monitoring during a 1-year period of therapy and to identify patient characteristics associated with lack of monitoring.


Retrospective cohort.


Ambulatory patients (n = 17,748) at 10 health maintenance organizations who were receiving ongoing continuous drug therapy with digoxin, carbamazepine, divalproex sodium, lithium carbonate, lithium citrate, phenobarbital sodium, phenytoin, phenytoin sodium, primidone, quinidine gluconate, quinidine sulfate, procainamide hydrochloride, theophylline, theophylline sodium glycinate, tacrolimus, or cyclosporine for at least 12 months between January 1, 1999, and June 30, 2001, were identified. Serum drug concentration monitoring was assessed from administrative data and from medical record data.


Fifty percent or more of patients receiving digoxin, theophylline, procainamide, quinidine, or primidone were not monitored, and 25% to 50% of patients receiving divalproex, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, or tacrolimus were not monitored. Younger age was associated with lack of monitoring for patients prescribed digoxin (adjusted odds ratio, 1.86; 95% confidence interval, 1.39-2.48) and theophylline (adjusted odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-2.04), while older age was associated with lack of monitoring for patients prescribed carbamazepine (adjusted odds ratio, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.44-0.80) and divalproex (adjusted odds ratio, 0.50; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.66). Patients with fewer outpatient visits were also less likely to be monitored (P < .001).


A substantial proportion of ambulatory patients receiving drugs with narrow intervals between doses resulting in beneficial and adverse effects did not have serum drug concentration monitoring during 1 year of use. Clinical implications of this finding need to be evaluated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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