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Magn Reson Med. 2006 Jun;55(6):1454-9.

Active catheter tracking using parallel MRI and real-time image reconstruction.

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Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg, Germany.


In this work active MR catheter tracking with automatic slice alignment was combined with an autocalibrated parallel imaging technique. Using an optimized generalized autocalibrating partially parallel acquisitions (GRAPPA) algorithm with an acceleration factor of 2, we were able to reduce the acquisition time per image by 34%. To accelerate real-time GRAPPA image reconstruction, the coil sensitivities were updated only after slice reorientation. For a 2D trueFISP acquisition (160 x 256 matrix, 80% phase matrix, half Fourier acquisition, TR = 3.7 ms, GRAPPA factor = 2) real-time image reconstruction was achieved with up to six imaging coils. In a single animal experiment the method was used to steer a catheter from the vena cava through the beating heart into the pulmonary vasculature at an image update rate of about five images per second. Under all slice orientations, parallel image reconstruction was accomplished with only minor image artifacts, and the increased temporal resolution provided a sharp delineation of intracardial structures, such as the papillary muscle.

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