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J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2006 Apr;27(2):98-105.

Self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and diabetes self-management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

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Prevention Research Branch, Division of Statistics, Epidemiology and Prevention Research, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.


The goal of this research was to develop and evaluate measures of adolescent diabetes management self-efficacy and outcome expectations that reflect developmentally relevant, situation-specific challenges to current diabetes regimens. Self-efficacy for diabetes management, expected outcomes of adherence, adherence to the diabetes regimen, and glycemic control were assessed in 168 adolescents (ages 10-16 years) with type 1 diabetes. Factor analyses indicated a single scale for self-efficacy and two distinct factors representing positive and negative outcome expectations. Reliability and predictive validity of the new scales were supported. In regression analyses, self-efficacy and the interaction of self-efficacy with expectations of positive outcomes were significantly associated with diabetes self-management adherence and glycemic control in older adolescents. The effect of self-efficacy was greatest when adolescents had stronger beliefs in the beneficial outcomes of adherence. These brief measures can be used to identify youths at risk of poor diabetes self-management. Interventions targeting self-efficacy may lead to improved diabetes self-management.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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