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Semin Cancer Biol. 2006 Jun;16(3):173-82. Epub 2006 Apr 1.

Structural determinants of 14-3-3 binding specificities and regulation of subcellular localization of 14-3-3-ligand complexes: a comparison of the X-ray crystal structures of all human 14-3-3 isoforms.

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Center for Cancer Research, Department of Biology and Division of Biomedical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, 02139, USA.


14-3-3 proteins are a ubiquitous class of regulatory proteins found in all eukaryotic cells and were the first class of molecules to be recognized as discrete phosphoserine/threonine binding modules. 14-3-3 proteins bind a large number of different substrates to regulate a wide array of cellular signaling events including cell cycle progression and DNA damage responses, programmed cell death, cytoskeletal dynamics, transcriptional control of gene expression, as well as processes directly related to cancer progression. In this review, the structural basis of phosphorylation-dependent binding of 14-3-3 to peptide and protein ligands is discussed along with mechanisms that govern how 14-3-3 regulates the function of its bound ligands. The X-ray crystal structures of all human 14-3-3 proteins bound to peptides have now been solved. Here, we use structural comparisons between isoforms as a framework for discussion of ligand binding by 14-3-3 as well as the mechanisms through which post-translational modification of the different isoforms alters their function.

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