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J Periodontal Res. 2006 Jun;41(3):208-13.

Anti-inflammatory properties of enamel matrix derivative in human blood.

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Faculty Division Rikshospitalet Institute for Surgical Research, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.



Enamel matrix derivative (EMD), extracted from porcine tooth buds, has been shown to promote periodontal healing in patients with severe periodontitis. This involves modulation of the inflammatory response followed by the onset of periodontal regeneration. Based on these observations, we examined the ability of EMD to modulate the release of a pro-inflammatory cytokine [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha], an anti-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-10) and a chemokine (interleukin- 8) in whole human blood challenged by bacterial cell wall components.


Whole blood from healthy donors was challenged by lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan and incubated with different concentrations of EMD or a cAMP analogue 8-(4-chlorophenyl)thio-cAMP (8-CPT-cAMP). TNF-alpha, interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 were analysed from plasma by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) while cAMP levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates were analysed by enzyme immunoassay (EIA).


We found that EMD attenuated the release of TNF-alpha and interleukin-8 in whole blood from healthy donors challenged by lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan, while the release of interleukin-10 was unchanged. Enamel matrix derivative also produced a four-fold increase in the cAMP levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates. Like EMD, 8-CPT-cAMP attenuated the formation of TNF-alpha, but not of interleukin-10, in blood challenged by lipopolysaccharide.


Enamel matrix derivative limits the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by lipopolysaccharide or peptidoglycan in human blood, suggesting that it has anti-inflammatory properties. We propose that this effect of EMD is, at least partly, secondary to an increase in the intracellular levels of cAMP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

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