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Sleep. 2006 Apr;29(4):455-61.

Extracellular adenosine in the human brain during sleep and sleep deprivation: an in vivo microdialysis study.

Author information

1
Department of Neurology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

Abstract

STUDY OBJECTIVES:

To examine the pattern of extracellular adenosine in the human brain during sleep deprivation, sleep, and normal wake.

DESIGN:

Following recovery from implantation of clinical depth electrodes, epilepsy patients remained awake for 40 continuous hours, followed by a recovery sleep episode.

SETTING:

Neurology ward at UCLA Medical Center.

PATIENTS OR PARTICIPANTS:

Seven male epilepsy patients undergoing depth electrode localization of pharmacologically refractory seizures.

INTERVENTIONS:

All subjects were implanted with depth electrodes, a subset of which were customized to contain microdialysis probes. Microdialysis samples were collected during normal sleep, sleep deprivation, and recovery sleep from human amygdalae (n = 8), hippocampus (n = 1), and cortex (n = 1).

MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:

In none of the probes did we observe an increase in extracellular adenosine during the sleep deprivation. There was a significant, though very small, diurnal oscillation (2.5%) in 5 of the 8 amygdalae. There was no effect of epileptogenicity on the pattern of extracellular adenosine.

CONCLUSIONS:

Our observations, along with those in animal studies, indicate that the role of extracellular adenosine in regulating sleep pressure is not a global brain phenomenon but is likely limited to specific basal forebrain areas. Thus, if energy homeostasis is a function of sleep, an increased rate of adenosine release into the extracellular milieu of the amygdala, cortex, or hippocampus is unlikely to be a marker of such a process.

PMID:
16676778
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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