Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2006 Oct;291(4):R970-6. Epub 2006 May 4.

Systemic inflammation and remote organ damage following bilateral femur fracture requires Toll-like receptor 4.

Author information

  • 1Department of Surgery, F-1200 PUH, University of Pittsburgh, 200 Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15217, USA.


Extensive soft tissue injury and bone fracture are significant contributors to the initial systemic inflammatory response in multiply injured patients. Systemic inflammation can lead to organ dysfunction remote from the site of traumatic injury. The mechanisms underlying the recognition of peripheral injury and the subsequent activation of the immune response are unknown. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) recognize microbial products but also may recognize danger signals released from damaged tissues. Here we report that peripheral tissue trauma initiates systemic inflammation and remote organ dysfunction. Moreover, this systemic response to a sterile local injury requires toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Compared with wild-type (C3H/HeOuJ) mice, TLR4 mutant (C3H/HeJ) mice demonstrated reduced systemic and hepatic inflammatory responses to bilateral femur fracture. Trauma-induced nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB activation in the liver required functional TLR4 signaling. CD14-/- mice failed to demonstrate protection from fracture-induced systemic inflammation and hepatocellular injury. Therefore, our results also argue against a contribution of intestine-derived LPS to this process. These findings identify a critical role for TLR4 in the rapid recognition and response pathway to severe traumatic injury. Application of these findings in an evolutionary context suggests that multicellular organisms have evolved to use the same pattern recognition receptor for surviving traumatic and infectious challenges.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center