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Acta Chir Iugosl. 2005;52(4):69-74.

Urinary prostate specific antigen: is the clinical use likely?

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Institute for Urology and Nephrology, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade.


Prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test represents the standard procedure in prostate cancer (CaP) diagnosis and follow-up. However, determination of PSA in the urine, where PSA is present in much higher concentrations than in the blood, still remains in the field of research.


To determine urinary concentrations of PSA (uPSA) in different groups of patients (pts.), and to estimate is it possible to differentiate benign and malignant prostate diseases and to follow-up the results of treatment.


Between January 2001. and November 2003., urinary concentrations of PSA were determined at 142 pts. divided in seven groups: 1. young and healthy volunteers, 2. "BPH-24": pts. with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) who collected the sample of 24-hour voided urine, 3. "BPH-I": pts. with BPH who collected the first portion of first urinary voiding, 4. "TRUS-CaP": pts. with CaP which gave the first portion of urine just prior to transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS- biopsy), 5. "TRUS-non-CaP": pts. who gave first portion of urine prior to TRUS-biopsy, but biopsy did not prove the presence of CaP, 6. "RRP": pts. who underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy (RRP), 7. "AAT": pts. who underwent androgen deprivation therapy.


Average uPSA value in the group of young and healthy volunteers, was 13.8 +/- 19.6 ng/ml, in "BPH-24": 38.0 +/- 44.4 ng/ml, in "BPH-I": 140.8 +/- 140.9 ng/ml, in "TRUS-CaP": 234.8 +/- 277.7 ng/ml, in TRUS-non-CaP: 113.1 +/- 148.5 ng/ml, and in the group "RRP": 4.4 +/- 4.7 ng/ml. There was no statistically significant difference of average uPSA values between "BPH-I" and "TRUS-CaP" groups. The significant difference was found between the group of young volunteers and "BPH-I". In "TRUS-CaP" group, there was strong correlation between tumour size and aggressivenes and uPSA concentration. Finally, PSA and uPSA decline during androgen deprivation therapy, strongly correlated (up to r = 0.95).


Determination of uPSA cannot differentiate BPH and CaP. However, in the group of pts. with proven localized CaP, uPSA can provide additional information concerning T-staging. Moreover, simultaneous monitoring of PSA and uPSA response on hormonal therapy, can provide an early recognition of androgen-indiferent CaP (AIPCA) and hormone-resistent CaP (HRPCA).

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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