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J Pers Soc Psychol. 2006 Apr;90(4):666-79.

The social-cognitive model of achievement motivation and the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework.

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  • 1Cognitive Psychology Laboratory, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Provence, France. francois.cury@up.univ-mrs


Two studies examined hypotheses drawn from a proposed modification of the social-cognitive model of achievement motivation that centered on the 2 x 2 achievement goal framework. Implicit theories of ability were shown to be direct predictors of performance attainment and intrinsic motivation, and the goals of the 2 x 2 framework were shown to account for these direct relations. Perceived competence was shown to be a direct predictor of achievement goals, not a moderator of relations implicit theory or achievement goal effects. The results highlight the utility of attending to the approach-avoidance distinction in conceptual models of achievement motivation and are fully in line with the hierarchical model of achievement motivation.

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