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Mod Pathol. 2006 Jul;19(7):974-85. Epub 2006 Apr 28.

D2-40 antibody immunoreactivity in developing human brain, brain tumors and cultured neural cells.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, St Mary's Hospital, Tsubukuhon-machi, Kurume-shi, and Department of Pathology and Biodefense, Saga Medical School, Japan.


D2-40 antibody is raised against an oncofetal antigen, the M2A antigen. It has been used as a marker for lymphatic endothelium as well as mesothelioma and cerebellar hemangioblastoma. We demonstrate here that positive D2-40 immunoreactivity was found in the developing cerebrum, particularly in the germinal matrix layer, immature ependyma, choroid plexus and meninges. In the developing cerebellum, positive D2-40 immunoreactivity was found in the external granular layer particularly of the outer portion and the Purkinje cell layer as well as meninges. Some brain tumors such as anaplastic ependymoma, some medulloblastomas, glioblastoma, pineal germinoma, craniopharyngioma, choroid plexus papilloma, choroid plexus carcinoma, and meningioma showed positive immunoreactivity with D2-40. Therefore, D2-40 antibody is considered a useful marker for research on developing brain and diagnosis of brain tumors, differentiation between choroid plexus carcinoma and metastatic carcinoma. In addition, on cultured human neural cells, D2-40 immunoreactivity was found in nestin-positive neural stem/progenitor cells and neuronal lineage cells. As D2-40 antibody recognizes cell surface antigen M2A, it might be a candidate cell surface marker for isolation of human neural stem cells/neuronal lineage cells in the fluorescence-activated cell sorting technique.

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