Send to

Choose Destination
Nature. 2006 May 11;441(7090):231-4. Epub 2006 Apr 30.

Transforming growth factor-beta induces development of the T(H)17 lineage.

Author information

Department of Pathology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama 35294-2170, USA.


A new lineage of effector CD4+ T cells characterized by production of interleukin (IL)-17, the T-helper-17 (T(H)17) lineage, was recently described based on developmental and functional features distinct from those of classical T(H)1 and T(H)2 lineages. Like T(H)1 and T(H)2, T(H)17 cells almost certainly evolved to provide adaptive immunity tailored to specific classes of pathogens, such as extracellular bacteria. Aberrant T(H)17 responses have been implicated in a growing list of autoimmune disorders. T(H)17 development has been linked to IL-23, an IL-12 cytokine family member that shares with IL-12 a common subunit, IL-12p40 (ref. 8). The IL-23 and IL-12 receptors also share a subunit, IL-12Rbeta1, that pairs with unique, inducible components, IL-23R and IL-12Rbeta2, to confer receptor responsiveness. Here we identify transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) as a cytokine critical for commitment to T(H)17 development. TGF-beta acts to upregulate IL-23R expression, thereby conferring responsiveness to IL-23. Although dispensable for the development of IL-17-producing T cells in vitro and in vivo, IL-23 is required for host protection against a bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. The action of TGF-beta on naive T cells is antagonized by interferon-gamma and IL-4, thus providing a mechanism for divergence of the T(H)1, T(H)2 and T(H)17 lineages.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Nature Publishing Group
Loading ...
Support Center