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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 9;103(19):7465-70. Epub 2006 Apr 28.

Proteasome inhibitors uncouple rhesus TRIM5alpha restriction of HIV-1 reverse transcription and infection.

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1
Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL 60611, USA.

Abstract

The primate TRIM5alpha proteins have recently been defined as cellular restriction factors, preventing primate infection by retroviruses from different species. For instance, rhesus TRIM5alpha (rhTRIM5alpha) restricts infection by HIV-1. Virtually all TRIM5alpha proteins block the early replication of retroviruses by preventing the accumulation of reverse transcription products, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this article, we find that disrupting proteasome function alters rhTRIM5alpha localization and allows the normal generation of HIV-1 late reverse transcription products, even though HIV-1 infection and the generation of nuclear 1-LTR and 2-LTR viral cDNA forms remain impaired. This finding suggests rhTRIM5alpha restricts HIV infection in two distinct phases: (i) altering the normal passage of the reverse-transcribing viral genome to the nucleus and (ii) targeting the reverse transcription complex to be disrupted by the proteasome. Because proteasome inhibitor blocks the second phase, accumulation of a nonfunctional viral DNA genome can be readily observed. Defining each phase may reveal HIV-1 targets for future antiviral therapy in which dual blockade may be equally as effective as naturally occurring rhTRIM5alpha protein in preventing HIV-1 infection in vivo.

PMID:
16648264
PMCID:
PMC1464362
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.0510483103
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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