Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Virol. 2006 May;80(10):4971-7.

The K65R mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase exhibits bidirectional phenotypic antagonism with thymidine analog mutations.

Author information

1
Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.

Abstract

The K65R mutation in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) is selected in vitro by many D-nucleoside analog RT inhibitors (NRTI) but has been rarely detected in treated patients. In recent clinical trials, the K65R mutation has emerged frequently in patients experiencing virologic failure on antiretroviral combinations that do not include 3'-azidothymidine (AZT). The reason for this change is uncertain. To gain insight, we examined trends in the frequency of K65R in a large genotype database, the association of K65R with thymidine analog mutations (TAMs) and other NRTI mutations, and the viral susceptibility profile of HIV-1 with K65R alone and in combination with TAMs. Among >60,000 clinical samples submitted for genotype analysis that contained one or more NRTI resistance mutations, the frequency of K65R increased from 0.4% in 1998 to 3.6% in 2003. Among samples with K65R, a strong negative association was evident with the TAMs M41L, D67N, L210W, T215Y/F, and K219Q/E (P<0.005) but not with other NRTI mutations, including the Q151M complex. This suggested that K65R and TAMs are antagonistic. To test this possibility, we generated recombinant HIV-1 encoding K65R in two different TAM backgrounds: M41L/L210W/T215Y and D67N/K70R/T215F/K219Q. K65R reduced AZT resistance from >50-fold to <2.5-fold in both backgrounds. In addition, TAMs antagonized the phenotypic effect of K65R, reducing resistance to tenofovir, abacavir, 2',3'-dideoxycytidine, dideoxyinosine, and stavudine. In conclusion, K65R and TAMs exhibit bidirectional phenotypic antagonism. This antagonism likely explains the negative association of these mutations in genotype databases, the rare emergence of K65R with antiretroviral therapies that contain AZT, and its more frequent emergence with combinations that exclude AZT.

PMID:
16641288
PMCID:
PMC1472090
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.80.10.4971-4977.2006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center