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Clin Genet. 2006 Apr;69(4):349-54.

LADD syndrome is caused by FGF10 mutations.

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Center for Human Genetics, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.


Lacrimo-auriculo-dento-digital syndrome [LADD (MIM 149730)] is an autosomal-dominant multiple congenital anomaly disorder characterized by aplasia, atresia or hypoplasia of the lacrimal and salivary systems, cup-shaped ears, hearing loss, and dental and digital anomalies. Loss of function mutations in FGF10 were recently described in aplasia of the lacrimal and salivary glands [ALSG (MIM 180920; MIM 103420)] (Entesarian et al., Nat Genet 2005: 37: 125-127, Milunsky et al., American College of Medical Genetics Annual Meeting, Dallas, TX, 2005: A100). Due to the significant phenotypic overlap between LADD syndrome and ALSG and the variable expressivity of both the disorders, we hypothesized that FGF10 mutations could also result in LADD syndrome. A de novo missense mutation was found in exon 3 of FGF10 in a 3-year-old female (Family 1) with LADD syndrome. This missense mutation, resulting in a non-conservative amino acid change, was confirmed by restriction enzyme digestion and was not found in 500 control chromosomes. A nonsense mutation was also found in exon 2 of FGF10 (Family 2) in a 19-year-old mother with ALSG and her 2-year-old daughter with LADD syndrome. Previous studies of FGF10 mutant mice have demonstrated abnormalities consistent with ALSG and LADD syndrome. We conclude that ALSG and LADD syndrome may represent variable presentations of the same clinical spectrum caused by FGF10 mutations.

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