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Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2006 Jul;71(3):276-88.

Heme-thiolate haloperoxidases: versatile biocatalysts with biotechnological and environmental significance.

Author information

1
Unit of Environmental Biotechnology, International Graduate School of Zittau, Germany. hofrichter@ihi-zittau.de

Abstract

Heme-thiolate haloperoxidases are undoubtedly the most versatile biocatalysts of the hemeprotein family and share catalytic properties with at least three further classes of heme-containing oxidoreductases, namely, classic plant and fungal peroxidases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and catalases. For a long time, only one enzyme of this type--the chloroperoxidase (CPO) of the ascomycete Caldariomyces fumago--has been known. The enzyme is commercially available as a fine chemical and catalyzes the unspecific chlorination, bromination, and iodation (but no fluorination) of a variety of electrophilic organic substrates via hypohalous acid as actual halogenating agent. In the absence of halide, CPO resembles cytochrome P450s and epoxidizes and hydroxylates activated substrates such as organic sulfides and olefins; aromatic rings, however, are not susceptible to CPO-catalyzed oxygen-transfer. Recently, a second fungal haloperoxidase of the heme-thiolate type has been discovered in the agaric mushroom Agrocybe aegerita. The UV-Vis adsorption spectrum of the isolated enzyme shows little similarity to that of CPO but is almost identical to a resting-state P450. The Agrocybe aegerita peroxidase (AaP) has strong brominating as well as weak chlorinating and iodating activities, and catalyzes both benzylic and aromatic hydroxylations (e.g., of toluene and naphthalene). AaP and related fungal peroxidases could become promising biocatalysts in biotechnological applications because they seemingly fill the gap between CPO and P450 enzymes and act as "self-sufficient" peroxygenases. From the environmental point of view, the existence of a halogenating mushroom enzyme is interesting because it could be linked to the multitude of halogenated compounds known from these organisms.

PMID:
16628447
DOI:
10.1007/s00253-006-0417-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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