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J Biol Chem. 2006 Jun 23;281(25):16897-905. Epub 2006 Apr 20.

O-glycosylation regulates autolysis of cellular membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP).

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  • 1Burnham Institute for Medical Research, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

Abstract

MT1-MMP is a key enzyme in cancer cell invasion and metastasis. The activity of cellular MT1-MMP is regulated by furin-like proprotein convertases, TIMPs, shedding, autoproteolysis, dimerization, exocytosis, endocytosis, and recycling. Our data demonstrate that, in addition to these already known mechanisms, MT1-MMP is regulated by O-glycosylation of its hinge region. Insignificant autolytic degradation is characteristic for naturally expressed, glycosylated, MT1-MMP. In turn, extensive autolytic degradation, which leads to the inactivation of the protease and the generation of its C-terminal membrane-tethered degraded species, is a feature of overexpressed MT1-MMP. We have determined that incomplete glycosylation stimulates extensive autocatalytic degradation and self-inactivation of MT1-MMP. Self-proteolysis commences during the secretory process of MT1-MMP through the cell compartment to the plasma membrane. The strongly negatively charged sialic acid is the most important functional moiety of the glycopart of MT1-MMP. We hypothesize that sialic acid of the O-glycosylation cassette restricts the access of the catalytic domain to the hinge region and to the autolytic cleavage site and protects MT1-MMP from autolysis. Overall, our results point out that there is a delicate balance between glycosylation and self-proteolysis of MT1-MMP in cancer cells and that when this balance is upset the catalytically potent MT1-MMP pool is self-proteolyzed.

PMID:
16627478
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.M600295200
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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