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Neuroscience. 2006 Jun 30;140(2):555-65. Epub 2006 Apr 19.

I.c.v. administration of the nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, CP-472555, prevents exacerbated hypoglycemia during repeated insulin administration.

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Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA 71209, USA.


Hypoglycemia elicits an integrated array of CNS-mediated counterregulatory responses, including activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The role of antecedent adrenocortical hypersecretion in impaired glucose counterregulation remains controversial. The present studies utilized the selective, nonsteroidal glucocorticoid receptor antagonist, CP-472555, as a pharmacological tool to investigate the hypothesis that hypoglycemic hypercorticosteronemia modulates CNS efferent autonomic and neuroendocrine motor responses to recurring insulin-induced hypoglycemia via glucocorticoid receptor-dependent mechanisms. Groups of adult male rats were injected s.c. with either one or four doses of the intermediate-acting insulin, Humulin neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH), on as many days, while controls were injected with diluent alone. Animals injected with four doses of insulin were pretreated by i.c.v. administration of graded doses of the glucocorticoid receptor antagonist or vehicle alone prior to the first three doses of insulin. Repeated daily injection of NPH exacerbated hypoglycemia, attenuated patterns of glucagon and epinephrine secretion, and diminished neuronal transcriptional activation in discrete CNS metabolic loci, including the lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, and nucleus of the solitary tract. While i.c.v. delivery of 25 or 100 ng doses of CP-472555 did not alter any of these parameters, animals treated with 500 ng exhibited circulating glucose, glucagon, and epinephrine levels that were similar to those in rats injected with one dose of insulin, as well as a reversal of recurring insulin-induced hypoglycemia-associated reductions in Fos immunolabeling in the lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. These results provide unique pharmacological evidence that antecedent activation of central glucocorticoid receptor is required for exacerbation of hypoglycemia during recurring insulin-induced hypoglycemia, and that these receptors mediate modulatory effects of hypoglycemic hypercorticosteronemia on autonomic efferent responses to recurring insulin-induced hypoglycemia. The data also suggest that neurons in central loci characterized here by antagonist-mediated overturn of recurring insulin-induced hypoglycemia-induced decreases in neuronal transcriptional activation may be direct or indirect substrates for this hormonal modulation action.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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