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J Chem Phys. 2006 Apr 14;124(14):144110.

Generalized trajectory surface hopping method based on the Zhu-Nakamura theory.

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Department of Functional Molecular Science, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Myodaiji, Okazaki 444-8585, Japan.


We present a generalized formulation of the trajectory surface hopping method applicable to a general multidimensional system. The method is based on the Zhu-Nakamura theory of a nonadiabatic transition and therefore includes the treatment of classically forbidden hops. The method uses a generalized recipe for the conservation of angular momentum after forbidden hops and an approximation for determining a nonadiabatic transition direction which is crucial when the coupling vector is unavailable. This method also eliminates the need for a rigorous location of the seam surface, thereby ensuring its applicability to a wide class of chemical systems. In a test calculation, we implement the method for the DH(2) (+) system, and it shows a remarkable agreement with the previous results of C. Zhu, H. Kamisaka, and H. Nakamura, [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 3234 (2002)]. We then apply it to a diatomic-in-molecule model system with a conical intersection, and the results compare well with exact quantum calculations. The successful application to the conical intersection system confirms the possibility of directly extending the present method to an arbitrary potential of general topology.

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