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Proteomics. 2006 May;6(10):3050-9.

Proteomic analysis of the 14-3-3 family in Arabidopsis.

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Plant Molecular and Cellular Biology Program, Horticultural Sciences Department, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA.


In this study, various proteomics-based methods were utilized to examine the 14-3-3 protein family in Arabidopsis thaliana. A protein extract was prepared from an Arabidopsis hypocotyl suspension culture and analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting with a 14-3-3 monoclonal antibody that recognizes multiple Arabidopsis isoforms. Protein spots that cross-reacted with the monoclonal antibody as well as the surrounding spots were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography in conjunction with electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Nine separate spots contained 14-3-3s and each spot contained multiple 14-3-3 isoforms. Every isoform observed was verified by the identification of at least one isoform-specific peptide. Further analysis by mass spectrometry revealed that the isoforms Chi, Upsilon, Omega, Phi, and Lambda were acetylated on their N termini and no non-acetylated N termini were recovered. These data, together with the distribution of isoforms and the confirmation that 14-3-3s are not complexed during urea denaturing isoelectric focusing, supports the conclusion that Arabidopsis 14-3-3s are acetylated in vivo and are significantly affected by other post-translational modifications.

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