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Kidney Int Suppl. 2006 Apr;(100):S30-8.

Contrast-induced nephropathy: pharmacological prophylaxis.

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Laboratory of Interventional Cardiology, Clinica Mediterranea, Naples, Italy.


Contrast media-associated acute renal failure represents the third most common cause of in-hospital renal function deterioration after decreased renal perfusion and post-operative renal insufficiency. Although generally benign, this complication is associated with a mortality rate ranging from 3.8 to 64%, depending on the increase of creatinine concentration. Multiple drugs have been tested in an attempt to prevent this complication. Central to the pathophysiology of contrast-induced nephrotoxicity (CIN) is an alteration in renal hemodynamics. In an effort to reverse these hemodynamic changes, vasodilators and diuretics have been tested as prophylactic drugs. However, their effectiveness has not been confirmed. Recently, considerable interest has resulted from the initial positive data on the effectiveness of prophylactic administration of antioxidant compounds, such as acetylcysteine and ascorbic acid. In this review, we focus on the effectiveness of pharmacologic therapies for preventing CIN.

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