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Kidney Int Suppl. 2006 Apr;(100):S16-9.

Prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy with volume supplementation.

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Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland.


Volume supplementation remains the cornerstone for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). Current evidence suggests that the combination of intravenous and oral volume supplementation effectively prevents CIN in low- and moderate-risk patients. Normal isotonic (0.9%) saline should be started 12 h before (or at least in the morning of) the contrast procedure with an infusion rate of 1 ml/kg of body weight per hour and be continued for 24 h. In addition, patients should be encouraged to drink plenty of fluids (tea, mineral water). The use of bicarbonate infusion may allow shorter volume supplementation periods. Combined intravenous and oral volume supplementation protocols feasible for outpatients who limit the intravenous infusion to the contrast procedure are under investigation. Future studies are necessary to define further details regarding the optimal use of volume supplementation.

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