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J Trauma. 2006 Apr;60(4):758-63; discussion 763-4.

Volume replacement with lactated Ringer's or 3% hypertonic saline solution during combined experimental hemorrhagic shock and traumatic brain injury.

Author information

1
Division of Applied Physiology, Heart Institute, InCor, University of São Paulo School of Medicine, Brazil. acapuano@terra.com.br

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The devastating effects of hypotension on head-trauma-related mortality are well known. This study evaluates the systemic and cerebral hemodynamic responses to volume replacement with 3% hypertonic saline (HSS) or lactated Ringer's solution (LR), during the acute phase of hemorrhagic shock (HS) associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI).

METHODS:

Fifteen dogs were assigned to one of three groups (n = 5, each) according to the volume replacement protocol, infused after TBI (brain fluid percussion, 4 atm) and epidural balloon to an intracranial pressure (ICP) higher than 20 mm Hg and HS, induced by blood removal to a mean arterial pressure (MAP) of 40 mm Hg in 5 minutes: Group HS+TBI+HSS (8 mL/kg of 3% HSS), HS+TBI+LR (16 mL/kg LR), and Group HS+TBI (controls, no fluids). We simulated treatment during prehospital and early hospital admission. Groups HS+ TBI and HS+TBI+LR received shed blood infusion to a target hematocrit of 30%. Measurements included shed blood volume, fluid volume infused to restore MAP, MAP, cardiac output, cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral and systemic lactate, and oxygen extraction ratios.

RESULTS:

Fluid replacement with HSS 3% or LR promoted major hemodynamic benefits over control animals without luids. Cerebral perfusion pressure was higher than controls and similar between treated groups; however, HSS 3% infusion was associated with lower ICP during the "early hospital phase" and a higher serum sodium and osmolarity.

CONCLUSION:

In the event of severe head trauma and hemorrhagic shock, the use of HSS 3% and larger volumes of LR promote similar systemic and cerebral hemodynamic benefits. However, a lower ICP was observed after HSS 3% than after LR.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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