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Blood. 2006 Aug 15;108(4):1158-64. Epub 2006 Apr 11.

Lenalidomide therapy in myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia.

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Division of Hematology and Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN 55905, USA.


We present results of 2 similarly designed but separate phase 2 studies involving single-agent lenalidomide (CC-5013, Revlimid) in a total of 68 patients with symptomatic myelofibrosis with myeloid metaplasia (MMM). Protocol treatment consisted of oral lenalidomide at 10 mg/d (5 mg/d if baseline platelet count < 100 x 10(9)/L) for 3 to 4 months with a plan to continue treatment for either 3 or 24 additional months, in case of response. Overall response rates were 22% for anemia, 33% for splenomegaly, and 50% for thrombocytopenia. Response in anemia was deemed impressive in 8 patients whose hemoglobin level normalized from a baseline of either transfusion dependency or hemoglobin level lower than 100 g/L. Additional treatment effects in these patients included resolution of leukoerythroblastosis (4 patients), a decrease in medullary fibrosis and angiogenesis (2 patients), and del(5)(q13q33) cytogenetic remission accompanied by a reduction in JAK2(V617F) mutation burden (1 patient). Grade 3 or 4 adverse events included neutropenia (31%) and thrombocytopenia (19%). We conclude that lenalidomide engenders an intriguing treatment activity in a subset of patients with MMM that includes an unprecedented effect on peripheral blood and bone marrow abnormalities.

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