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Phys Rev Lett. 2006 Mar 24;96(11):111102. Epub 2006 Mar 22.

Gravitational-wave extraction from an inspiraling configuration of merging black holes.

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Gravitational Astrophysics Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771, USA.


We present new ideas for evolving black holes through a computational grid without excision, which enable accurate and stable evolutions of binary black hole systems with the accurate determination of gravitational waveforms directly from the wave zone region. Rather than excising the black hole interiors, our approach follows the "puncture" treatment of black holes, but utilizing a new gauge condition which allows the black holes to move successfully through the computational domain. We apply these techniques to an inspiraling binary, modeling the radiation generated during the final plunge and ringdown. We demonstrate convergence of the waveforms and good conservation of mass-energy, with just over 3% of the system's mass converted to gravitational radiation.

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