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Oncol Rep. 2006 May;15(5):1391-5.

Comparative integromics on Ephrin family.

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M&M Medical BioInformatics, Hongo 113-0033, Japan.


EFNA1, EFNA2, EFNA3, EFNA4, EFNA5, EFNB1, EFNB2 and EFNB3 are EFN family ligands for EPH family receptors. EFN/EPH signaling pathway networks with the WNT signaling pathway during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and carcinogenesis. Comparative genomics analyses on EFNB1, EFNB2 and EFNB3 were performed by using bioinformatics and human intelligence (humint). EFNB1 mRNA was expressed in human embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, diffuse type gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, colon cancer, brain tumors and esophageal cancer, EFNB2 mRNA in human ES cells, neural tissues and colon cancer, EFNB3 mRNA in human ES cells, neural tissues, brain tumors, pancreatic cancer and colon cancer. Because triple TCF/LEF-binding sites were identified within the 5'-promoter region of human EFNB3 gene, comparative genomics analyses on EFNB3 orthologs were further performed. Chimpanzee EFNB3 gene, consisting of five exons, was identified within AC164921.3 genome sequence. AY421228.1 was not a correct coding sequence for chimpanzee EFNB3. Chimpanzee EFNB3 gene was found to encode a 340-amino-acid protein showing 99.4% and 96.6% total-amino-acid identity with human EFNB3 and mouse Efnb3, respectively. Three TCF/LEF-binding sites within human EFNB3 promoter were conserved in chimpanzee EFNB3 promoter, and the second TCF/LEF-binding site in rodent Efnb3 promoters. CpG hypermethylation of EFNB3 promoter with 63.2% GC content as well as deletion of EFNB3 gene closely linked to TP53 tumor suppressor gene at human chromosome 17p13.1 should be investigated to elucidate the mechanism of infrequent EFNB3 upregulation in human colorectal cancer. EFNB3, identified as potential transcriptional target of WNT/beta-catenin signaling pathway, is a pharmacogenomics target in the fields of regenerative medicine and oncology.

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