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J Vet Intern Med. 2006 Mar-Apr;20(2):228-33.

Effects of allopurinol treatment on the progression of chronic nephritis in Canine leishmaniosis (Leishmania infantum).

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Clinic of Companion Animal Medicine, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece.


Forty dogs with canine leishmaniosis (CL) participated in this study, which was designed to investigate the effect of allopurinol on the progression of the renal lesions associated with this disease. The animals were allocated into 5 groups. Group A dogs (n = 12) had neither proteinuria nor renal insufficiency, group B dogs (n= 10) had asymptomatic proteinuria, and group C dogs (n = 8) were proteinuric and azotemic. Two more groups, CA and CB, comprising 5 dogs each, served as controls for groups A and B, respectively. Group A, B, and C dogs received allopurinol PO (10 mg/kg q12h) for 6 months, whereas group CA and CB dogs were placebo-treated. Serum biochemistry profile, urinalysis, urine protein/creatinine ratio, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurements were carried out at the beginning of the study, the 3rd month, and the 6th month, whereas renal biopsies were carried out only at the beginning and the end of the trial. Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis was the most common cause of chronic renal failure. Mesangioproliferative and tubulointerstitial nephritis were detected even in group A and CA dogs. Allopurinol not only lowered proteinuria in group B dogs but also prevented the deterioration of GFR and improved the tubulointerstitial, but not the glomerular, lesions in both group A and group B dogs. Further, it resolved the azotemia in 5 of the 8 dogs admitted with 2nd stage chronic renal failure (group C). Consequently, treatment with allopurinol is advisable in CL cases with asymptomatic proteinuria or 1st-2nd stage chronic renal failure.

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