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J Infect Dis. 2006 May 1;193(9):1219-22. Epub 2006 Mar 28.

Frequency and treatment-related predictors of thymidine-analogue mutation patterns in HIV-1 isolates after unsuccessful antiretroviral therapy.

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  • 1Clinical Infectious Diseases, Catholic University, Rome, Italy.


We investigated, in patients tested between 1991 and 2004, the patterns of mutually exclusive human immunodeficiency virus-1 thymidine-analogue mutations (TAMs) in 4039 reverse-transcriptase sequences with > or = 1 TAM. TAM pattern 1, which included M41L and L210W and excluded K70R and is coupled with more-extensive cross-resistance to drugs, became the most frequent pattern after 1996. In 1465 genotypes from 684 patients in whom highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was unsuccessful, predictors of this pattern were the number of previous HAART regimens undergone (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.09 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.02-1.16]), use of stavudine/lamivudine (adjusted OR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.05-1.99]), use of nevirapine (adjusted OR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.14-2.24]), use of efavirenz (adjusted OR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.08-2.27]), and use of ritonavir (adjusted OR, 1.35 [95% CI, 1.04-1.75]).

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