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Zh Vyssh Nerv Deiat Im I P Pavlova. 2006 Jan-Feb;56(1):5-21.

[Role of the basal ganglia in the occurrence of paradoxical sleep dreams (hypothetical mechanism)].

[Article in Russian]

Abstract

A hypothetical mechanism of the basal ganglia involvement in the occurrence of paradoxical sleep dreams and rapid eye movements is proposed. According to this mechanism, paradoxical sleep is provided by facilitation of activation of cholinergic neurons in the pedunculopontine nucleus as a result of suppression of their inhibition from the output basal ganglia nuclei. This disinhibition is promoted by activation of dopaminergic cells by pedunculopontine neurons, subsequent rise in dopamine concentration in the input basal ganglia structure. striatum, and modulation of the efficacy of cortico-striatal inputs. In the absence of signals from retina, a disinhibition of neurons in the pedunculopontine nucleus and superior colliculus allows them to excite neurons in the lateral geniculate body and other thalamic nuclei projecting to the primary and higher visual cortical areas, prefrontal cortex and back into the striatum. Dreams as visual images and "motor hallucinations" are the result of an increase in activity of definitely selected groups of thalamic and neocortical neurons. This selection is caused by modifiable action of dopamine on long-term changes in the efficacy of synaptic transmission during circulation of signals in closed interconnected loops, each of which includes one of the visual cortical areas (motor cortex), one of the thalamic nuclei, limbic and one of the visual areas (motor area) of the basal ganglia. pedunculopontine nucleus, and superior colliculus. Simultaneous modification and modulation of synapses in diverse units of neuronal loops is provided by PGO waves. Disinhibition of superioir colliculus neurons and their excitation by pedunculopontine nucleus lead to an appearance of rapid eye movements during paradoxical sleep.

PMID:
16583673
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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