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Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Apr;26(8):3071-84.

Autocrine tumor necrosis factor alpha links endoplasmic reticulum stress to the membrane death receptor pathway through IRE1alpha-mediated NF-kappaB activation and down-regulation of TRAF2 expression.

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1
Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, 702 Light Hall, Nashville, TN 37232-0615, USA.

Abstract

NF-kappaB is critical for determining cellular sensitivity to apoptotic stimuli by regulating both mitochondrial and death receptor apoptotic pathways. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) emerges as a new apoptotic signaling initiator. However, the mechanism by which ER stress activates NF-kappaB and its role in regulation of ER stress-induced cell death are largely unclear. Here, we report that, in response to ER stress, IKK forms a complex with IRE1alpha through the adapter protein TRAF2. ER stress-induced NF-kappaB activation is impaired in IRE1alpha knockdown cells and IRE1alpha(-/-) MEFs. We found, however, that inhibiting NF-kappaB significantly decreased ER stress-induced cell death in a caspase-8-dependent manner. Gene expression analysis revealed that ER stress-induced expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) was IRE1alpha and NF-kappaB dependent. Blocking TNF receptor 1 signaling significantly inhibited ER stress-induced cell death. Further studies suggest that ER stress induces down-regulation of TRAF2 expression, which impairs TNF-alpha-induced activation of NF-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and turns TNF-alpha from a weak to a powerful apoptosis inducer. Thus, ER stress induces two signals, namely TNF-alpha induction and TRAF2 down-regulation. They work in concert to amplify ER-initiated apoptotic signaling through the membrane death receptor.

PMID:
16581782
PMCID:
PMC1446932
DOI:
10.1128/MCB.26.8.3071-3084.2006
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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